Elements of the Blockchain Ecosystem

[as of 07/12/18]

Professor Walter A. Effross

American University Washington College of Law

[PDF Version] Ecosystem0712

Some categories, and examples, of participants in the world of blockchain and cryptocurrency.

(Inclusion on this list does not represent an endorsement of entities or their products, services, or activities.)

Trading/Exchange Platforms- Abra, Binance, Bitfinex, bitFlyer, Bithumb, Bitmex, BitPesa, Bitstamp, Circle, Coinbase, Gemini, Huobi, itBit, Kraken, OKEx, ShapeShift

Developers of infrastructure and applications- BlockCypher,, Blockstream, Bloq, Consensys, Initiative for CryptoCurrencies and Contracts; Lightning Labs, RChain

Developers of blockchain protocols- Lightning Labs

Open source (i..e., public) blockchains- Bitcoin, Ethereum, Hyperledger

Private (i.e., permissioned) blockchains- Axcore, Chaincore, Corda, Ethereum private blockchain, Exonum, Hyperledger Fabric, Sawtooth

Governance Groups- Internet Governance Forum; Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) (see its list of Working Groups); W3C; World Economic Forum Trade Association- Global Blockchain Business Council

Developers of industry consortium blockchains- Blockchain Insurance Industry Initiative (B3i); Coalition of Automated Legal Applications (COALA) (see its list of Working Groups); Energy Web Foundation, (EWF); Global Legal Blockchain Consortium; R3 Consortium Cross-Industry blockchain consortia-Chamber of Digital Commerce (and its Token Alliance); Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA) [see its list of Working Groups]; Hyperledger; Open Identity Exchange (OIX)

Research and Advocacy- Bitcoin Foundation; Blockchain Alliance; Blockchain Research Institute; The Brooklyn Project (“An industry-wide initiative to promote token-powered economic growth and consumer protection”); Chaincode Labs; Chamber of Digital Commerce (and its Smart Contracts Alliance, and its DC Blockchain Center); CoinCenter; Ethereum Foundation; P2P Foundation (“conceived to help people, organizations and governments transition towards commons-based approaches to society through co-creating an open knowledge commons and a resilient, sustainable human network”); The SAFT Project (“[D]eveloping a compliant framework for token sales”), Trusted IoT Alliance (“We seek to enable trust in the data produced by such IoT systems in a distributed ledger/blockchain agnostic fashion, thereby enabling a decentralized trust model for interoperable digitized identities of physical goods, documents, immobilized assets, sensors, and machines.”); Wall Street Blockchain Alliance; Public-Private Alliances- ID2020 (providing digital identification worldwide; self-sovereignty)

Venture Capital- 7Blockchain.VC, a16z crypto (Andreessen Horowitz), Blockchain Capital, Digital Currency Group, Galaxy Digital, Greylock Partners,1confirmation, Ikigai; Medici Ventures, Mstate, Multicoin Capital, Pantera Capital, Union Square Partners, [trade association]; Venture Capital Working Group

Providers and developers of blockchain applications; provider of support and services- Clovyr

Developers of sidechains- Blockstream

Charitable/philanthropic crowdfunding (through cryptocurrency) platforms- Bitgive, Bithope, Helperbit

Providers of security, maintenance, compliance, logistics solutions- Bitgo, CipherTrace, CoinList

Prevention of crime/fraud- Chainalysis, Elliptic

Block explorers (reveal information about blocks and transactions)- Block Explorer,, BlockSeer, Etherchain, Etherscan

Investigate other participants-BlockSeer

ID Validation- Netki

Blockchain-based verification of identity- Blockpass, Civic, ID2020 Alliance, SecureKey, Sovrin

Blockchain for anti money laundering (AML) and counter terrorism financing (CTF) compliance- Coinfirm

“Help protect individual constitutional rights and civil liberties in connection with regulatory and law enforcement scrutiny and efforts relating to digital currencies (e.g., bitcoin) and ledgers (e.g., blockchains)”- Digital Currency & Ledger Defense Coalition

Blockchain applications for governmental and social justice use- Blockchain for Good (BC4G), Blockchain for Social Justice Coalition Blockchain Trust Accelerator, PositiveBlockchain

Blockchain for securities trading and securitization of assets- Securrency

Blockchain for governmental benefit payments to individuals- Blockchain for Social Impact

Developers of blockchain-preserved news publications- Civil Media Company

Blockchain for use in corporate proxy voting- Broadridge Financial Solutions

Blockchain-enabled voting- Democracy Earth Foundation, Follow My Vote, VoteWatcher, VotoSocial

Blockchain for compliance with Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)- Fidelity National Information Services

Blockchain in the energy industry- Drift, Energy Web Foundation, LO3 Energy, Power Ledger

Prediction market platforms- Augur, Gnosis

Financial inclusion (payments to the “unbanked”)- BanQu, BitPesa,, Humaniq, Unocoin

Blockchain in supply chain management (SCM)- Ambrosus, Blockchain in Transportation Alliance (BiTA), Blockfreight, Everledger, OriginTrail, Skuchain

Blockchain in intellectual property licensing- Ascribe, DotBlockchain Music Project, KodakOne, MediaChain, Monegraph, Stem, Ujo,Verisart

Blockchain applications for lawyers- Integra, NetDocuments

Blockchain in mortgage recording- Block66, Factom, Homelend

Blockchain in medical records- Blockchain Health, Gem, MedRec, Patientory, SimplyVital Health

Education- Digital Currency Initiative (MIT)

Blockchain & Government- Illinois Blockchain Initiative

Blockchain-based social media, Steemit (“a blockchain-based rewards platform for publishers to monetize content and grow community”)

Blockchain-based virtual worlds- Decentraland

Smart contracts- Accord Project, Clause, Symbiont

Manufacturer of personal servers configured to function as blockchain nodes- Bitseed


Cryptocurrency- Bitcoin, Ether, Litecoin, Monero, Ripple, Zcash

Wallets- Bitpay, Blockchain, Colu, Xapo

Tokens- Basis, FileCoin

Crossborder payments- BitPesa

Payments Processing- CoinX, GoCoin

Cryptocurrency custodians- Komainu, Kingdom Trust, Ledger, Xapo

Cryptocurrency index funds- Bitwise Asset Management HOLD10 Private Index Fund, Coinbase Index Fund

Exchange-traded fund in cryptocurrency- VanEck SolidX Bitcoin Trust

Cryptocurrency futures trading- Cboe Global Markets, CME Group

News- Coindesk


Initial Coin Offerings- Coinschedule, Cointopia

Manufacturer of Bitcoin-mining computers- Bitmain